Individuals who exhibit symptoms such as; nausea, mental confusion, and swelling around the ankles are more likely to suffer from kidney disease. It is best to consult a nephrologist in Lahore for diagnosis and treatment. The specialist will determine the cause and severity of the condition and treat it accordingly. 

Azotemia is a condition in which the person has a higher concentration of waste material in the blood due to kidney failure. People above sixty are more likely to suffer from the condition. However, the treatment options are proven beneficial for a smooth recovery. The symptoms of azotemia are:

  • The person constantly has a metallic taste in the mouth.
  • The person remains stressed and weak without engaging in any physical activity.
  • The individual feels nauseous most of the time.
  • Due to lethargy and weakness, the person loses their appetite.
  • Caregivers can notice that the person remains confused at all times.
  • The patient experiences extreme cramping in the legs.
  • The patient can notice swelling in the lower extremities.
  • The person has an urge to urine all the time.
  • The skin of the patient becomes dry, scaly, and itchy.

Known Causes of Azotemia

The causes that correlate with the condition include:

  • People suffering from chronic kidney disease are more likely to suffer from the condition as a complication. The causes of kidney disease include; cancer, enlarged prostate, uncontrolled diabetes, infection, and inflammation in kidney tubules.
  • Due to hindrance in the kidney functioning, urea does not filter out from the body and gets into the bloodstream. It can be life-threatening without proper treatment.

Preventive Measures

The steps that can help minimize the occurrence of azotemia are:

  • People suffering from chronic kidney diseases must take treatment to avoid complications. 
  • People with kidney and heart disease should avoid sodium, potassium, and phosphorus.
  • People should maintain healthy dietary and lifestyle habits. Maintaining BMI and avoiding smoking helps the person stay healthy and avoid complications.

Complications Associated with Azotemia

  • The person may experience changes in the skin due to imbalance of minerals in the body.
  • The patient is at a higher risk of heart failure, which can be life-threatening.
  • The patient is more likely to suffer from amyloidosis, a condition related to joints.
  • The increase of urea in the bloodstream can cause the patient to experience seizures.

Tests to Diagnose Azotemia

The tests that assist in diagnosing azotemia are:

Blood testing helps check the levels and GFR to evaluate the severity of the condition.

The urine testing helps check for any abnormality and creatinine clearance.

The urine analysis helps check if there is a presence of blood that indicates kidney disease.

Medications to Treat Azotemia

The medications that have been proven beneficial in treating the condition include:

  • The use of Vitamin Supplement: The supplements promote normal functioning.
  • Use of Calcium Reducers: The medications help decrease the calcium content in the body that may cause kidney stones leading to azotemia.

Procedures and Therapy to Treat Azotemia

The procedures to treat azotemia are:

  • Hemodialysis is a procedure that allows the filtration of waste material from the blood.
  • In severe cases, the patient might require a kidney transplant. The affected kidney is replaced with a healthy one provided by a donor.
  • Renal Replacement Therapy is a combination of hemofiltration and dialysis to filter out the waste material from the blood.
  • Peritoneal dialysis is a procedure that filters out the waste from the blood by using the natural lining of the abdomen as a filter.

Self-Care to Enhance the Quality of Life.

The self-care steps that can help the patient live a healthier life include:

  • The patient must take fewer protein-related food items to avoid complications.
  • The patient must stay in touch with the specialist if they have a pre-existing kidney condition.

The patients must visit a nephrologist in Islamabad for guidance related to the effective treatment options that will lead to a smooth and quick recovery.